Synodontis petricola, known as the cuckoo catfish, or the pygmy leopard catfish, is a species of upside-down catfish endemic to Burundi, Zambia, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, and Tanzania where it is only known from Lake Tanganyika. It was first described by Belgian ichthyologist Hubert Matthes in 1959.
In the wild, the species is endemic to Lake Tanganyika, which has a temperature range of 23 to 26 °C (73 to 79 °F), and an approximate pH of 8.5 – 9, and dH range of 4-15. It inhabits rocky shorelines in the littoral zone, to a maximum depth of 30 metres (98 ft). The reproductive habits of most of the species of Synodontis are not known, beyond some instances of obtaining egg counts from gravid females. Spawning likely occurs during the flooding season between July and October, and pairs swim in unison during spawning. Juveniles appear to be carnivorous, feeding on water mites, seed shrimp, and insect larvae. Adults feed on algae scraped from rocks as well as small invertebrates. The growth rate is rapid in the first year, then slows down as the fish age.